American Journal of Education and Information Technology


Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Effect of Gender Differences in Reading Habits of University Students in Sri Lanka

Reading is considered as an important learning tool which comprised of multiple skills. Efficient reading by university students plays a vital role in shaping our society's future. Reading habits of University students is determined by several factors including age, gender, field of study and life style. Hence, this study was conducted to explore the effect of gender differences in reading habits of university undergraduates in Sri Lanka by obtaining data using questionnaires from 192 male and 474 female students of six universities. The results revealed that enjoying reading, reading preferences, how often they are reading and reading frequency significantly varied between the two genders (p<0.05). Females enjoyed reading and spent more time than their male counterparts. Most female students preferred novels (28.5%), while male respondents (7.5%) selected books to read. The majority of the female students responded that preparation for exams (39.6%) was the main barrier against reading, while male students selected social networks (16.5%). In terms of frequency, the majority of the girls (19.5%) read once a week, while 9.3% of boys read less frequently, whereas 0.9% of them never read. Based on this study, female are better in reading and showed positive attitude towards it than male students in Sri Lankan universities. Thereby, it is recommended to the universities in Sri Lanka to provide necessary guidance and motivation in developing reading skills, especially among male students.

Gender Differences, Reading Habits, Reading Preferences, Personal Satisfaction

Mohamed Nazeer Fathima Nashath, Ahamed Thaha Ahamed Akram. (2023). Effect of Gender Differences in Reading Habits of University Students in Sri Lanka. American Journal of Education and Information Technology, 7(2), 71-78.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Abeyrathna, P. H. A. S. & Zainab, A. N., (2004). The status of reading habit and interests among secondary school children in Sri Lanka. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 9 (2), pp. 110-123.
2. Abilock, D., (2002). How gender differences and effect on practice and programs. Emergency Librarian, 24 (5), pp. 17-18.
3. Aforo, A. A. (2014). Impact of social media on academic Reading: A study at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Asian Journal of Humanities and social studies, 2 (1).
4. Ahmad, S., Dar, B. A., & Lone, J. A. (2019). Reading Habits and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students: A gender based comparative study of Government Degree College (Boys) and Government Degree College for Women, Anantnag (J & K). Library Philosophy and Practice, 2019, 1-13.
5. Berninger, V. W., Nielson, K. H., Abbott, R. D., Wijsman, E., & Radskind, W., (2008). Gender differences in severity of writing and reading disabilities. Journal of School Psychology, 46, pp. 151–172.
6. Braunger, J. & Lewis, O., (2006). Building a knowledge base in reading Netwark de: International Reading Association. Edo Journal of Counseling, 3 (2), pp. 1-11.
7. Clinton, V., Seipel, B., van den Broek, P., McMaster, K. L., Kendeou, P., Carlson, S., & Rapp, D. N., (2014). Gender differences in inference generation by fourth-grade students. Journal of Research in Reading, 37 (4), pp. 356–374.
8. Dillon, D. R., O'Brien, D. G. & Heilman, E. E., (2000). Literacy research in the next millennium: From paradigms to pragmatism and practicality. Reading Research Quarterly, 35 (1), pp. 10-26.
9. Dilshad, M., Adnan, A., & Akram, A. (2013). Gender differences in reading habits of university students: An Evidence from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 33 (2), 311-320.
10. Erdem, A., (2015). A research on reading habits of university students: (Sample of Ankara University and Erciyes University). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, pp. 3983-3990.
11. Fatiloro, O. F., Adesola, O. A., Hameed, B. A. & Adewumi, O. M., (2017). A Survey on the Reading Habits among Colleges of Education Students in the Information Age. Journal of Education and Practice, 8 (8), pp. 106-110.
12. Frankenstein, D. W. (2009). Reading together: Everything you need to know to raise a child who loves to read. Penguin.
13. Gallik, J. D., (1999). Do they read for pleasure? Recreational reading habits of college students. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 42 (6), pp. 480-8.
14. Gunasekara, P. Wijesiri. (2002). Education in Sri Lanka. An overview. Colombo: Deepani Printers: pp 22-24.
15. Higginbotham, S., (1999). Reading interests of middle school students and reading preferences by gender of students in a Southeast State. Masters dissertation, University of Mercer. ERIC, ED42279.
16. Hoffman, J. & Pearson, P. D., (2000). Reading teacher education in the next millennium: What your grandmother's teacher didn't know that your granddaughter's teacher should? Reading Research Quarterly, 35 (1), pp. 28-44.
17. Hopper, R., (2005). What are teenagers reading? Adolescent fiction reading habits and reading choices. Literacy, 39 (3) 113-120.
18. Krashen, D. (1996). Comic book reading, enjoyment and pleasure reading among middle school students. Journal of Reading Improvement, 53 (1), pp. 51-54.
19. Labo-Popoola, S. O., (2018). Reading Habits amongst University Undergraduates: Implications for Academic Performance. International Journal of Learning and Development, 8 (2), pp. 114-129.
20. Ladipo, S. O. & Gbotosho, S. A., (2015). Influence of gender difference on reading habit and academic achievement of undergraduate medical students in university of Ibadan, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice.
21. Logan, S. & Johnston, R., (2009). Gender differences in reading ability and attitudes: Examining where these differences lie. Journal of research in reading, 32 (2), pp. 199-214.
22. Machet, M. P., (2004), Reading and use of informational material by South African youth. School Libraries Worldwide, 10 (1/2), pp. 1-11.
23. Moffitt, M. A. S., & Wartella, E. (1991). Youth and reading: A survey of leisure reading pursuits of female and male adolescents. Journal of Adolescents and Adults Literacy, 31 (2), pp. 2-17.
24. National Library Documentation Board. (2002). National library launches another reading promotion activity. Daily news, 1: March, Sri Lanka: Lake house publishers.
25. Noor, N. M., (2011). Reading habits and preferences of EFL post graduates: A case study. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1 (1), pp. 1-9.
26. Nor Shahriza, A. K. (2006). Reading habits and attitude in Malaysia: analysis of gender and academic programme differences. Kekal Abadi, 25.
27. Quinn, J. M., & Wagner, R. K., (2013). Gender differences in reading impairment and in the identification of impaired readers: Results from a large-scale study of at-risk readers. Journal of Learning Difficulties, 48, pp. 433–445.
28. Rajchert, J. M., Zultak, T., & Smulczyk, M., (2014). Predicting reading and its improvement in the Polish national extension of the PISA study: The role of intelligence, trait- and state-anxiety, socio-economic status and school-type. Learning and Individual Differences, 33, pp. 1–11.
29. Ross, C. S., (2002). Reading in a digital age. In G. E. Gorman (Ed.). The digital factor in library and information services. London: Facet Publishing. pp. 91-111.
30. Scales, A., M., & Rhee, O., (2001). Adult reading habits and patterns. Reading Psychology, 22, pp. 175-203.
31. Shafi, S. M., & Loan, F. A., (2010). Reading habits among college students of Kashmir across genders. TRIM 6 (2), pp. 92-103.
32. Simpson, A., (1996). Fictions and facts, investigations of the reading practices of girls and boys. British Educational Research, 28 (4), pp. 106-108.
33. Skenderi, L. & Ejupi, S., (2017). The reading habits of university students in Macedonia. In Conference Paper of 15th International Conference “Knowledge in Practice, 20 (6), pp. 2835-2839.
34. Snow, C., Sweet, A. P., Alvermann, D. E., Kamil, M. L., & Stricland, D. S. (2002). Formulating a research agenda about reading for understanding. In Comprehensive Reading Instruction Across the Grade Levels. A collection of papers from the Reading Research 2001 Conference (pp. 88-110).
35. Sunil, W. & Gunasekara, A. U., (2019). Identifying the reading habits among secondary school students in northern and eastern provinces in Sri Lanka. International Research Conference Articles, pp. 1110-1116.
36. Voyer, D., & Voyer, S. D., (2014). Gender differences in scholastic achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140, pp. 1174-1204.
37. Wagner, S. (2002). The reading habits of teams. Journal of Reading Today, 46, pp. 3-4.
38. Wicks, J., (1995). Pattern of reading among teenage boys: the reading habits and book preferences of 13-15 year old boys. New Library World, 96 (1122), pp. 10-16.
39. World Book Day. (2002). Improving reading across literacy discipline. Accessed on 14th May, 2021, Available at:
40. Yılmaz, B., (1993). The role of public libraries in reading habits, Ankara: Ministry of Culture.